, During World War II, intellectuals at an "overcoming modernity" conference proclaimed that prior to the Meiji Restoration, Japan has been a classless society under a benevolent emperor, but the restoration had plunged the nation into Western materialism (an argument that ignored commercialism and ribald culture in the Tokugawa era), which had caused people to forget their nature, which the war would enable them to reclaim. (2006:13), The Ministry of Education promulgated it throughout the school system. While Fukuzawa respected the Emperor of Japan, he believed kokutai did not depend upon myths of unbroken descent from Amaterasu. Kokutai (国体, "national body/structure of state") is a concept in the Japanese language translatable as "system of government", "sovereignty", "national identity, essence and character", "national polity; body politic; national entity; basis for the Emperor's sovereignty; Japanese constitution". Japanese history. , Because many religions had figures that distracted from the central emperor, they were attacked, such as the Oomoto sect condemned for worshipping figures other than Amaterasu, and in 1939, the Religious Organization authorized the shutting down of any religion that did not conform to the Imperial Way, which the authorities promptly used.. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. The Government created a whole perfect new cultural system around the Tennou [Emperor], and the kokutai was the expression of it. . Mutsuhito international. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. 902 Kokutai (902 Ku) Rabaul, Guam, Truk. - See 33 traveler reviews, 23 candid photos, and great deals for Chatan-cho, Japan, at Tripadvisor. This is a careful translation -- with extensive introduction, notes and appendices -- of the official statement issued by the Japanese Government in 1937 for the guidance of those whose function it was to indoctrinate the youth of the country. Katō Hiroyuki (1836–1916) and Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835–1901) were Meiji period scholars who analyzed the dominance of Western civilization and urged progress for the Japanese nation. The 1st century CE Book of Han history of Emperor Cheng of Han used guoti to mean "laws and governance" of Confucianist officials. Kokutai (Kyūjitai: 國體, Shinjitai: 国体, literally "national body/structure") is a politically loaded word in the Japanese language, translatable as "sovereign", "national identity; national essence; national character" or "national polity; body politic; national entity; basis for the Emperor's sovereignty; Japanese constitution". Identification.  The final letters of kamikaze pilots expressed, above all, that their motivations were gratitude to Japan and to its Emperor as the embodiment of kokutai. Miller gives this description. The national debates over kokutai led the Prime Minister Prince Fumimaro Konoe to appoint a committee of Japan's leading professors to deliberate the matter. Publication date 1949 Related Work Cardinal principles of the national entity of Japan. The US War Department's Handbook of Japanese Military Forces, TM-E 30-480 of 01 Oct 44 has a good rundown of many Japanese military terms in kanji and romaji, but mostly related to ground and air forces.  The Tokkō ("Special Higher Police") was established as a type of Thought Police to investigate political groups that might threaten Tenno-centered social order of Japan. ", This term, and what it meant, were widely inculcated in propaganda. Giving a definition to this concept, leading researchers of Japanese culture see it as a presentation of Japanese people's unity. Brownlee, John S. "Four Stages of the Japanese Kokutai (National Essence)", 2000.Daikichi, Irokawa. The national identity of Japan and the Japanese people during the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa periods was in a state of flux. Supplied Jakes from the 901 Kokutai then based at Toko on Taiwan and Hong Kong.  Nevertheless, because of the mistrust of unions in such unity, the Japanese went to replace them with "councils" in every factory, containing both management and worker representatives to contain conflict.  From this pamphlet, pupils were taught to put the nation before the self, and that they were part of the state and not separate from it. Modern Japanese researchers like Yamaguchi Satoshi and Murakami Shigeyoshi define kokutai similarly ± as a spirit of the nation, which is formed by the distinct status of Emperor as a connection link between Gods and the tangible world [Yamaguchi Satoshi. In 1937, they issued the Kokutai no Hongi (国体の本義, "Cardinal Principles of the National Body/Structure," see Gauntlett and Hall 1949). In the 21st century, Japanese nationalists, such as those affiliated with the Nippon Kaigi lobby, have begun using the phrase "kunigara" (国柄). (January 12, 2021). The form of government, Seitai, a secondary concept, then consisted of the historical 22 Kokutai is a light anti-submarine helicopter squadron that reports to 22 Kokugan (Air Group). However, as Japanese nationalism grew, questions arose whether the kokutai emperor could be limited by the seitai government. Qualifying for his wings on … Aizawa Seishisai (会沢正志斎, 1782–1863) was an authority on Neo-Confucianism and leader of the Mitogaku (水戸学 "Mito School") that supported direct restoration of the Imperial House of Japan.  Like the Nazi councils they were copying, this was part of a program to create a classless national unity. 15. The Kokutai-seitai distinction enabled conservatives to identify clearly as Kokutai, National Essence, the "native Japanese", eternal, and immutable aspects of their polity, derived from history, tradition, and custom, and focused on the Emperor. The complex social and political dynamics of this initial period of development for Japanese citizenship rights is the primary object of my inquiry. The English for 国際 is international. by John Owen Gauntlett and ed. In 1874, Katō wrote the Kokutai Shinron (国体新論 "New Theory of the National Body/Structure"), which criticized traditional Chinese and Japanese theories of government and, adopting Western theories of natural rights, proposed a constitutional monarchy for Japan. He has been feeding me information on Japanese carrier operations and re-arming procedures, and it has checked out very well with what I have already learned from NavTech, ATIG, and other sources, so I credit him as being reliable in at least that field. The committee of professors from prestigious universities sought to define the essential truths of Japan, which might be termed religious, or even metaphysical, because they required faith at the expense of logic and reason. 国体 “Kokutai” in the sense of “basis of the sovereignty” into the Meiji Period, or “body of the country”, or “sovereignty in the hands of the Tennou”. The word is kokutai (national essence). The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air … At Japanese funerals, for example, special phrases of condolence and sympathy are used instead of normal everyday speech. Find more Japanese words at wordhippo.com! Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. According to the Hanyu Da Cidian, the oldest guoti usages are in two Chinese classic texts. Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kokutai. Nevertheless, some authors, including Miller (1982:95), believe that traces of Japanese kokutai "are quite as vivid today as they ever were". For Japan's National Sports Festival, which is abbreviated as Kokutai, see National Sports Festival of Japan. Banned in Japan by General MacArthur and never published elsewhere, it is here presented to the American public for the first time. with an introd. Nationalwesens (kokutai)]. As such, foreign residents of Japan are restricted or excluded from participating in the event. The incident was the 1940 expulsion from the Diet of the conservative Member of Parliament Takao Saito for questioning the “Holy War” in China. Kokutai (Jap., ‘national polity’). The Kokutai is a huge annual athletic event designed to promote physical fitness for Japanese citizens. In 1327 Emperor Go-Daigo gave the temple the name Kokutai-ji, and Jiun Myoi became Seisen Zenji. Japanese society was compared to a large family, with the emperor at … Helicopters. 902 Kokutai (902 Ku) Rabaul, Guam, Truk.  This was regarded as lèse-majesté. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Brownlee explains. The document known as the Kokutai no Hongi was actually a pamphlet of 156 pages, an official publication of the Japanese Ministry of Education, first issued in March 1937 and eventually circulated in millions of copies throughout the home islands and the empire. "Sovereign" is perhaps the most simple translation. It is based at Omura (RJFU) and supplies SH-60J/K helicopters to … Tomokazu Kasai, a World War II Japanese naval ace, died in Amagasaki City, Japan on January 9, 2021, from chronic heart failure.He was 94. In this understanding, the modern system of government under the Meiji Constitution, derived this time from foreign sources, was nothing more than another form of Japanese government, a new seitai. "Kokutai Kokutai in the broad sense refers to a country’s political system. The legal scholar Josefa López notes that under the Meiji Constitution, kokutai acquired an additional meaning. Orientation More meanings for 黒帯 (Kokutai) black belt noun. This makes it possible for the user to see both versions of a paragraph ON THE SAME SCREEN. This notion of kokutai was extra-juridical, more something cultural than positive. (2000:5).  Many conservatives supported these principles as central to Nihon shugi (Nihon gunkoku shugi, Japanese militarism), "Japanism", as an alternative to rapid Westernization.. Moreover, the kokutai was the basis of the sovereignty. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. 936 Kokutai (936 Ku) As of January 1, 1945, the 933 Kokutai and other units in Indochina were absorbed by the 936 Kokutai. In Japanese Army, hakugeki-ho was operated by artillerymen. Bibliographic information. Aizawa developed his ideas of kokutai using the scholarly arguments of Motoori Norinaga (1730–1801) that the Japanese national myths in the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki were historical facts, believing that the Emperor was directly descended from the sun goddess Amaterasu-ōmikami. The form of government, Seitai, a secondary concept, then consisted of the historical arrangements for the exercise of political authority. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. Tokyo, Japan Hyodo Nisohachi is an author of several books on Japanese aviation ordnance. When meeting people for the first time, the Japanese employ honorific language (敬語 keigo) to express respectful greetings. The unit was a division-level force, and was part of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (IJAAF). Japan had experienced in succession direct rule by the Emperors in ancient times, then the rule of the Fujiwara Regents, then seven hundred years of rule by shōguns, followed by the allegedly direct rule of the Emperors again after the Meiji Restoration. During the Taishō Democracy, the political theorist Sakuzō Yoshino (1878–1933) rejected Western democracy minshu shugi (民主主義 lit. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. From the Xinhai Revolution to the enactment of the Peace Preservation Law (1911–1925), the most important pre-World War II democracy movement "Taishō Democracy" occurred. Japan's first modern Constitution (1889) defined the emperor as the source of supreme sovereign power, at the same time that it codified 黒帯. sokusha-ho - high-velocity gun (37mm AT gun) hohei-ho - infantry gun kyokusha-hohei-ho - 'high-angle infantry gun', namely mortars operated by infantrymen. It was more or less the Japanese "nation's body" or "national structure". . Responsibility Tr. The historical origins of kokutai go back to pre-1868 periods, especially the Edo period ruled by the Tokugawa shogunate (1603–1868). Hirohito's reign…, Culture Name . The Peace Preservation Law of 1925 forbade both forming and belonging to any organization that proposed altering the kokutai or the abolishment of private property, effectively criminalizing socialism, communism, republicanism, democracy and other anti-Tenno ideologies. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The Constitution of the Empire of Japan of 1889 created a form of constitutional monarchy with the kokutai sovereign emperor and seitai organs of government. He reasoned that it was not unique to Japan and that every nation could be said to have a kokutai "national sovereignty". Each was a seitai, a form of government. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. ", Brave warriors united in justice Article 4 declares that "the Emperor is the head of the Empire, combining in Himself the rights of sovereignty", uniting the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government, although subject to the "consent of the Imperial Diet". In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. (1982:92), It clearly stated its purpose: to overcome social unrest and to develop a new Japan.  A sailor might give his life to save the picture of the Emperor on a submarine. Estimated time: fifty minutes. The Kokutai is a huge annual athletic event designed to promote physical fitness for Japanese citizens. Died January 7, 1989 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. ." Precedents: Kokutai . Of course Confucianism is still alive and kicking in Japan! Denton, Texas December, 1990 The Culture of the Meiji Period.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970. Meiji (mā´jē), 1852–1912, reign name of the emperor of Japan from 1867 to 1912; his given name was Mutsuhito. Kokutai: Japanese national identity on the eve of World War II. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). It contained the official teaching of the Japanese state on every aspect of domestic policy, international affairs, culture, and civilization. Hirohito evoked the Kokutai in the Jewel Voice Broadcast, which announced the Japanese acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration (unconditional surrender). The 2nd century BCE Guliang zhuan (榖梁傳; 'Guliang's Commentary') to the Spring and Autumn Annals glosses dafu (大夫; 'high minister; senior official') as guoti metaphorically meaning "embodiment of the country". The Tennou was a "god" among "humans", the incarnation of the national morals. "people rule principle/-ism") and proposed a compromise on imperial democracy minpon shugi (民本主義 "people based principle/-ism"). Kokutairon and Pure Socialism (1906), otherwise known as The Theory of Japan's National Polity and Pure Socialism (国体論及び純正社会主義), is a radical socialist treatise written by Kita Ikki in critique of the Japanese Meiji Government. JAPANESE ATTITUDES TOWARD PRISONERS OF WAR: FEUDAL RESURGENCE IN KOKUTAI NO HONGI THESIS Presented to the Graduate Council of the Universtity of North Texas in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of MASTER OF ARTS By Waller F. Jones, B.A. [Image not available for copyright reasons] Kokutai — National Polity, National Entity. Seitai, the form of government, was historically contingent and changed through time. Kokutai was an evocative term that referred to the national essence or the fundamental character of the Japanese nation and people. ), This stemmed from Itō Hirobumi's rejection of some European notions as unfit for Japan, as they stemmed from European constitutional practice and Christianity. Dictionaries thesauruses pictures and press releases, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. He ascended the throne when he wa…, Kojiki Translated by John Owen Gauntlett and edited with an introduction by Robert King Hall. Compiled in a.…, Mikado •foreshadow, shadow •Faldo •accelerando, bandeau, Brando, glissando, Orlando •eyeshadow •aficionado, amontillado, avocado, Bardo, Barnardo, ba…, Hirohito 933 Kokutai (933 Ku) As of January 1, 1945, 933rd Kokutai in Indochina was absorbed by 936 Kokutai. By this time the originally Confucian notions of loyalty and filial piety had come to be regarded as native Japanese virtues, and in 1937 these virtues were propounded in a work entitled Kokutai no hongi (Essentials of the national polity) as the cardinal principles of Japanese national morality. The national identity of Japan and the Japanese people during the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa periods was in a state of flux. Kita Ikki was a notable Japanese political intellectual in the late nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century. A most wonderful question! He popularized the word kokutai in his 1825 Shinron (新論 "New Theses"), which also introduced the term Sonnō jōi ("revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians"). 国際. , Great efforts were made to foment a "Japanese spirit" even in popular culture, as in the promotion of the "Song of Young Japan. Among nationalists of the late 19th and early 20th cents., a term referring to the Shinto-Confucian idealization of the Japanese nation-state. The national essence of Japan was defined as a loving, liberty based, and equal country. immaculatus), Kol Yaakov Torah Center: Narrative Description, Kol Yisrael ("Voice of Israel," in Hebrew), https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/kokutai. Background. , For the leaders of Japan's "fascist-nationalist clique", writes Miller (1982:93), "kokutai had become a convenient term for indicating all the ways in which they believed that the Japanese nation, as a political as well as a racial entity, was simultaneously different from and superior to all other nations on earth. 12 Jan. 2021 . On September 20, 1942 at Rabaul the Genzan Kōkūtai figher complement of 36 A6M Zeros was expanded to 60 A6M Zeros and redesignated the 252 Kōkūtai (252 Ku) as a seporate fighter air group. Katō Hiroyuki (1836–1916) and Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835–1901) were Meiji period scholars who analyzed the dominance of Western civilization and urged progress for the Japanese nation. According to Tatsukichi Minobe, kokutai is understood as the "shape of the Estate" in the sense of "Tenno as the organ of the Estate", while the authoritarians gave the kokutai a mystical power. Tracking. by Robert King Hall. Coco Ichibanya Okinawa Chatan Kokutai Road: A MUST visit when in Okinawa! More meanings for 国際 (Kokusai) international adjective. The "family-state" element in it was given a great deal of prominence by political philosophy. national body/structure ) is a politically loaded word in the Japanese language, translatable as national identity; national essence; national character or national polity; body politic; national entity; basis… … Wikipedia. By enact of the Constitution of the State of Japan (3 May 1947), Tenno's sovereignty and the lèse-majesté were repealed. Japan > Civilization. Encyclopedia.com. Decorum, deference, and courtesy are also evident in many other facets of Japanese behavior. English-Japanese Shinto from an International Perspective.  Minobe was appointed to the House of Peers in 1932 but forced to resign after an assassination attempt and vehement criticisms that he was disloyal to the emperor. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. His 1875 "Bunmeiron no Gairyaku" (文明論の概略 "An Outline of a Theory of Civilization") contradicted traditional ideas about kokutai. ... Japanese. For early Japanese Neo-Confucian scholars, linguist Roy Andrew Miller (1982:93) says, "kokutai meant something still rather vague and ill defined. Tokyo, Japan Kokutai originated as a Sino-Japanese loanword from Chinese guoti (Chinese: 國體; pinyin: guótǐ; "state political system; national governmental structure"). Brownlee concludes that after the Kokutai no Hongi proclamation, It is clear that at this stage in history, they were no longer dealing with a concept to generate spiritual unity like Aizawa Seishisai in 1825, or with a political theory of Japan designed to accommodate modern institutions of government, like the Meiji Constitution. The Japanese word for “national essence,” kokutai, took on highly charged overtones in the increasingly militaristic 1930s, carrying with it a sense of all that made Japan unique. From the standpoint of the traditional Japanese kokutai theory, to claim the emperor is really only a symbol or metonym for Japan is a category mistake comparable to saying the dna found in the blood at the crime scene is only a symbol or metonym for the perpetrator. Kokutai: Japanese national identity on the eve of World War II. (2007). Kokutai, National Essence, the “native Japanese”, eternal, and immutable aspects of their polity, derived from history, tradition, and custom, and focused on the Emperor. Kokutai-ji (国泰寺, "Temple of National Peace"), originally Tosho-ji (東松寺), is one of fourteen autonomous branches of the Rinzai school of Japanese Zen, founded in 1300 by the monk Jiun Myoi in Toyama, Japan. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. ." 124th emperor of Japan 933 Kokutai (933 Ku) As of January 1, 1945, 933rd Kokutai in Indochina was absorbed by 936 Kokutai. Born on March 8, 1926, at a farmhouse in Sasayama, Hyogo Prefecture, he enlisted in the Imperial Navy and started flight training at the Tsuchiya Kokutai (naval air group) on April 1, 1942.. What does 黒帯 (Kokutai) mean in Japanese? On February 11thof 1898 the Imperial Japanese Constitution was enacted. Kokutai no hongi.  It also instructed them in the principle of hakkō ichiu, which would be used to justify imperialism.. The organization was responsible for the operation of naval aircraft and the conduct of aerial warfare in the Pacific War.. This whole flap caused me, as a historian first and as a Japanese voter second, to think of one word and one incident.  This was required because voters were required to support imperial rule. They define kokutai as a basic political principle of Japanese statehood and as an expression of Japanese nation's character as a whole [Hettling Manfred, Scholz Tino. 936 Kokutai (936 Ku) As of January 1, 1945, the 933 Kokutai and other units in Indochina were absorbed by the 936 Kokutai. Translated by John Owen Gauntlett and edited with an introduction by Robert King Hall. In spirit a match for a million – Kokutai no Hongi: cardinal principles of the national entity of Japan. (2006:n.p. , By 1937, "election purification", originally aimed at corruption, required that no candidate set the people in opposition to either the military or the bureaucracy. Supplied Jakes from the 901 Kokutai then based at Toko on Taiwan and Hong Kong. , "Japanist" unions endeavoured to win support by disavowing violence and pledging support for nation and emperor. English Translation. Mutsuhito (also known as Meiji Tenno; 1852-1912) was a Japanese emperor, who became the symbol for, and encouraged, the dramatic…, Meiji インターナショナル, 国際的, 世界的. What does 国際 (Kokusai) mean in Japanese? Wartime History. The word is also a short form of the (unrelated) name for the National Sports Festival of Japan. It evoked similar emotions for prewar Japanese to those sparked by the national flag for many Americans. ." , Tatsukichi Minobe (1873–1948), a professor emeritus of law at Tokyo Imperial University, theorized that under the Meiji Constitution, the emperor was an organ of the state and not a sacrosanct power beyond the state. English Translation. black belt. Each page or paragraph of the Japanese original of the KOKUTAI NO HONGI is cross-tagged with the corresponding paragraph of the English translation. Estimated time: fifty minutes. The author's stated Japan was better and didn't need Western ideas.  The references to the kokutai were the justification of the emperor's authority through his divine descent and the unbroken line of emperors, and the unique relationship between subject and sovereign. Gauntlett, John Owen and Hall, Robert King. This system utilized a democratic form, but in practice was closer to an absolute monarchy. Conservative thinkers voiced concerns that the establishment of an empowered class of aides to the emperor was akin to the creation of a new shogunate. As such, foreign residents of Japan are restricted or excluded from participating in the event. Hirohito The Japanese compound word joins koku (國, "country; nation; province; land") and tai (體, "body; substance; object; structure; form; style"). The Japanese names, Nihon and Nippon, are alternative readings of written characters that mean "origin of th…, Koki'o Ke'oke'o (Hibiscus waimeae ssp. , Some objections to the founding of the Taisei Yokusankai or Imperial Rule Assistance Association, came on the grounds that kokutai already required all imperial subjects to support imperial rule. Aizawa idealized this divinely-ruled ancient Japan as a form of saisei icchi (祭政一致 "unity of religion and government") or theocracy. The spirit of ancient Confucianisn pervades through all areas of Japanese society from top to bottom and bottom to top. Kokutai — (Kyūjitai: 國體, Shinjitai: 国体, lit. Literally the body of the nation (of which the Emperor is the head). 22 Kokugan ( Air Group ) Indochina was absorbed by 936 Kokutai at 22:59 252 Air Group...., as Japanese nationalism grew, questions arose whether the Kokutai is a light anti-submarine helicopter Squadron that to... Arrangements for the first time at Tripadvisor for 黒帯 ( Kokutai ) mean in Japanese operation of naval aircraft the. Teishin Shudan was a `` god '' among `` humans '', the of! Term, and courtesy are also evident in many other facets of Japanese behavior upon myths of unbroken descent Amaterasu! The ( unrelated ) name for the exercise of political authority ancient Japan as presentation. Restricted or excluded from participating in the Pacific War date of retrieval is often.! Practice was closer to an absolute monarchy political intellectual in the late 19th and early cents.... Historically contingent and changed through time for many Americans retrieval dates, were widely inculcated in propaganda the Constitution the. Leading researchers of Japanese behavior to pre-1868 periods, especially the Edo period ruled by the Tokugawa (. And repealed the Peace Preservation Law ( 15 October 1945 ) however, as Japanese nationalism,! Of naval aircraft and the Japanese Embassy to the Shinto-Confucian idealization of the Kokutai in the Jewel Broadcast... Spirit of ancient Confucianisn pervades through all areas of Japanese culture see it as a form of the state flux... To refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list deal of prominence by political.... Regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates to … Japanese history Festival of Japan language 敬語... Contingent and changed through time Japanese Kokutai ( 933 Ku ) Rabaul, Guam Truk... ) '', 2000.Daikichi, Irokawa this initial period of development for Japanese rights... Still alive and kicking in Japan a democratic form, but in was! ( 3 May 1947 ), it is here presented to the Shinto-Confucian idealization of the no... And edited with an introduction by Robert King Hall the complex social political. The Hanyu Da Cidian, the Concise Oxford Dictionary of World War II have a Kokutai national! 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